Sources of Information in Transportation
TRUCKING
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Canadian Sources:
General References



General References: Industry Overview (including regulation/deregulation)

A survey of the impact of reform of extra provincial regulation on the international for hire activities of the Canadian Trucking Industry. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Motor Carrier Branch, 1984. 32 pages.

Abdul Cubukgil Associates Inc. Potential impact of replacing reverse-bonus test with fitness Test. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1986. 139 pages.

ADI Limited and IBI Group. Impacts of Canada's Heavy Vehicle Weights And Dimensions Research And Interprovincial Agreement. Ottawa, Canada: Transportation Association of Canada, Canadian Trucking Research Institute, 1994. 170 pages.

In 1988 and 1989, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Vehicle Weights and Dimensions came into effect in Canada.  The agreement allowed larger and heavier trucks to operate across Canada on designated highways, and introduced a greater degree of uniformity than had existed previously. This report examines the effects of the MOU on trucking in Canada from 1988 to 1992. Specifically, this study focuses on truck fleet composition, transportation costs, total trucking costs, infrastructure costs (geometric design, pavements maintenance, bridges, other highway users), and safety. 

ADI Limited. Industry Canada: profile on Canada's private trucking industry. Ottawa: Canada. Industry Canada, 1995.

This report uses a number of databases to present a profile of Canada's private trucking industry. The results from the analyses of these databases are supplemented with a private fleet survey and interviews.

Ash, L. “Canada's trucking industry moves toward a nationally certified program of driver training”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, May 26-29, 1996, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Volume 2.  Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 776-791.

This paper is intended to enhance the reader's understanding of current initiatives of the Canadian Trucking Human Resources Council (CTHRC) directed toward a nationally certified program of driver training for Canada's Motor Carrier Industry. The comments presented are based on two industry surveys undertaken by the author in 1994 and 1995. 

Barzyk, F. “Trucking in a borderless market: a profile of the Canadian trucking industry, 1988 to 1994”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, May 26-29, 1996, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Volume 1.  Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 24-41.

The Canadian For-hire trucking industry has experienced important changes to its operating environment beginning with deregulation in 1987 and followed closely by the signing of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This paper investigates the size, structure and activity of Canada's For-hire trucking industry in the context of these regulatory and economic changes. 

Billing, J and M Young. “A discussion of design vehicles and warrants for geometric design of intersections: Transportation: a key to Canadian competitiveness”. Proceedings of the 1992 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, September 13 to 17, 1992. Quebec City, Quebec. Volume 2. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1992. Pages B83-B106.

Canada's Memorandum of Understanding on Vehicle Weights and dimensions, signed in 1988, set new limits for the size of heavy trucks.  The Memorandum has been implemented by all provinces, and has resulted in a new generation of trucks whose dimensions may strain some intersections designed to older standards.  This paper draws on data from weigh-in-motion scales to assess dimensions of some current classes of vehicle. 

Blanchard, G. Trucking deregulation in the United States: a study of the financial and economic impacts of the motor carrier act (MCA) of 1980. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Motor Carrier Branch, 1985. 207 pages.

Bodden, D. “Competing effectively with American companies on their own turf”. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, June 1st to 4th, 1993, Fredericton, New Brunswick. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1993.  Pages 41-56. 

This paper examines methods on how to utilize deregulated American carriers and resources in Canada to effectively compete against companies located in the States. 

Boucher, M. Economic analysis of regulations governing the trucking industry in Quebec. Canadian Transport Commission. Research Branch, 1979.

Boucher, M. “The impact of deregulation on the Québec trucking industry: a preliminary assessment”. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1990. Pages 123-134.

The purpose of this paper is to assess, on a preliminary basis, the main effects of this new policy whose objective is to promote competition in an industry which was formally regulated over the last 37 years. 

Boucher, M. “The behaviour of Quebec trucking firms since the 1988 regulatory reform”. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Fredericton, New Brunswick, June 1st to 4th, 1993. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1993. Pages 282-294.

The purpose of this paper is to assess, through the analysis of two specific corridors, namely the Montreal-Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean one and the other, covering Montreal-Greater Trois Rivieres, how trucking firms implement new management and technical practises coming from their daily experience and translate them into more efficient behaviour. 

Bowland,J; Mcknight,D. “Best practices in the North American trucking industry”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 1. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 11-23.

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of best practices in the North American trucking industry. KPMG assessed trends and practices in the truckload (TL) and less-than-truckload (LTL) sectors in Canada and the U.S. The analysis included trends in financial performance, major expense items, financial policies, information technology, operating practices and markets.

CCMTA national truck roadside survey: data analysis manual. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1997.

The 1995 national roadside survey (NRS) was undertaken to produce a profile of the volume and characteristics of truck activity on Canada's highways, information needed for policy development and highway planning. The methodology and findings of the survey are presented in this report.  This report explains the use of the "Data analysis package".

CCMTA national truck roadside survey: project report. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1997.

The 1995 national roadside survey (NRS) was undertaken to produce a profile of the volume and characteristics of truck activity on Canada's highways, information needed for policy development and highway planning. 

Clayton, A. “Enforcement and overweight trucking”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, June 9 to 12, 1992, Banff, Alberta. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992.  Pages 298-308. 

The objectives of this paper are: 1. to review key impressions reported in the literature about enforcement and its effects; 2. to present an overview of weight enforcement programs in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and to examine new evidence from these provinces about how the intensity of enforcement at weigh scales affects the amount of overweight trucking; 3. to provide suggestions as to appropriate directions that weight enforcement programs and related research should take. 

Commercial vehicle inspections in Canada: National Safety Code Standards 11, 12 & 13. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1994. 

The purpose of this manual is to provide the motor carrier professional with the necessary information to comply with the existing safety requirements for the maintenance and inspection of commercial vehicles. The manual provides information to develop and implement safety programs which will ensure only safe equipment gets on the road. Operators and carriers have the responsibility to ensure equipment is maintained in safe condition to avoid the possibility of accident due to mechanical defects.

Compliance interprovincial reference guide: fourth edition. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1991. 66 pages.

The purpose of this guide is to provide readily accessible reference information for those officials responsible for enforcing legislation relevant to the transportation of people and goods in Canada.  This material updates the 1988 edition and includes information that enforcement organization and legislation enforced in each province and territory. 

Delaquis, M. and FP Nix. “Long combination vehicle operations in Canada”. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, May 14-17, 1995, Aylmer, Quebec. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1995. Pages 668-681. 

This paper is based on work undertaken for the Canadian Trucking Research Institute. It documents the extent of long-combination vehicle operations in Canada, provides figures on relative performance and discusses policy issues associated with their use. 

Fekpe, ES. “Uncertainties in truck regulatory policy and highway infrastructure management”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian
Transportation Research Forum, May 26- 29, 1996, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Volume 2.  Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. 

Glandt, D.  “An automated procedure for the regulation of overweight vehicles: developments in short and medium span bridge engineering '90”. Papers presented at the Third International Conference on short and medium span bridges held in Toronto, Ontario, August 7-10, 1990, Volume 1. Montreal: Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 1990. Pages 503-510.

A methodology for the evaluation of overload vehicles is developed.

Gough & Gray Group, Inc. A comparison of Canadian and U.S. carrier management approaches. Ottawa: Canada. National Transportation Act Review Commission, 1992.  41 pages.

This report is an examination of the significant differences between Canadian and U.S. management approaches in the trucking industry. 

Gough & Gray Group, F Nix and Transmode Consultants Inc. Implications of alternative cabotage rules. Ottawa: Minister of Transport. Task Force on Trucking Issues, 1991. 85 pages.

This study was commissioned by Transport Canada and constitutes one of seven studies conducted for the Minister's Task Force on Trucking. The purpose of this study was to examine cabotage related problems encountered by the trucking industry, and to assess the implications of alternative cabotage rules. 

Heavy Truck Weight And Dimension Regulations For Interprovincial Operations In Canada Resulting From The Federal-Provincial-Territorial Memorandum of Understanding on Interprovincial Weights And Dimensions. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada. Interjurisdictional Committee on Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, 1995. 36 pages.

In February 1988, the Council of Ministers of Transportation and Highway Safety endorsed a Memorandum of Understanding designed to improve uniformity in regulations covering weights and dimensions of four types of commercial vehicles operating between provinces and territories on a nationwide highway system. Since the original agreement was established, two amendments have been prepared and endorsed by all participating jurisdictions: one in September 1991 and one in July 1994. This document gives the most up to date weights and dimensions allowable in all provinces and territories.

Heyes, A. “Market Structure, Regulatory Externalities And The Overloading Of Trucks: An Industry Perspective”. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Victoria, British Columbia, May 15-18, 1994.  Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1994. Pages 929-945.

In this paper the author assesses the regulatory problem surrounding the enforcement of weight limits. In particular, the scope for industry self-regulation is considered. The focus of this study is the problem faced by firms in the industry, and regulatory framework is to some extent 'black boxed', though people will motivate the external characteristics of that black box in several ways. 

“Highway sessions: Canadian Transportation Research Forum”. Proceedings: transportation: emerging realities, Toronto, Ontario, May 25-28, 1997. Volume 1.  Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1997. 

Papers presented at the sessions were as follows: The changing relative importance of international and interprovincial merchandise trade in Canada with particular reference to Ontario (Sinanan,F and Junor,K);  Truck traffic between Canada and the United States (Nix,FP, Billing,JR and Delaquis,M); A rough sets determination of financial variables most influential in predicting motor carrier failures (Hashemi,RR, Le Blanc,LA, Hinson,W, Walid Al-Massyabi and Chow,G); Disaggregate analysis of freight transportation characteristics (Fekpe,ESK);  An industry with many faces: balance sheets analysis of for-hire trucking companies (Masse,R);  Moral aspects of road pricing policy
(Bunting,M); Private fleet competitiveness: is backhauling an opportunity? (Mardon,A).

Hirshhorn, R. Trucking regulation in Canada: a review of the issues. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1981. 183 pages.

Jacques, B. Entry and exit in the trucking industry 1984 to 1989. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Economic Analysis, 1991. 39 pages.

This document provides an analysis of data in order to establish the entry and exit levels of firms in the Canadian trucking industry by region and by revenue class. Data covers the 1984-1989 period. The main conclusion of the analysis is that the Canadian trucking industry, as a whole, grew in each year covered by the data. 

Kingham,RI. “NAFTA trade corridors: the "unlevel playing field" for international carriers”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 2. Saskatoon: University o Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996.  Pages 677-689.

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) became effective in 1994 committing Canada, United States and Mexico to a program that would remove trade barriers. The purpose of this paper is to assist planners in understanding the existing barriers to the efficient movement of trucks and automobiles across borders.

Kirk, BD; Cairns, MB. Canadian for-hire trucking and the effects of regulation: a cost structure analysis. Canadian Transport Commission. Research Branch, 1980.

Little,G. “A profile of the Ontario private trucking industry”. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Fredericton, New Brunswick, June 1st to 4th, 1993. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1993. Pages 57-70.

Nix,F. Motor carrier transport study: the impact of weight and dimension regulations on trucking. Ottawa: Canada. National Transportation Act Review Commission, 1992. 120 pages.

The purpose of this study is to assess the impact recent changes in truck weight and dimension regulations have had on trucking in Canada. Preliminary evidence on the impact of this 1988 agreement on highway safety, road use and trucking productivity is considered.

Nix,F. “The 1988 agreement on truck weight and dimension regulations”. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Fredericton, New Brunswick, June 1st to 4th, 1993. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1993. Pages 318-332.

Nix,FP. Impact of Regulatory Differences On The Motor Carrier Industry. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, 1994. 52 pages.

This study assesses the impact of regulatory differences on trucking in Canada. The focus is on the industry's perception about how provincial/territorial regulatory differences affect business. 

Nix,FP. Trucking in Canada: a profile. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Research Alliance, 1998. 36 pages.

This report is an overview of the Canadian trucking industry. It is divided into the following chapters: What is "The Trucking Industry"? Trucking, transportation and the economy; The fleet; Freight hauled by trucks; Trucks and roads; Trucks and government; Trucks and energy; Financial performance of the for-hire trucking industry; Summary; References; Notes on sources.

Memorandum of understanding respecting a federal-provincial- territorial agreement on vehicle weights and dimensions. Ottawa: Council of Ministers Responsible for Transportation and Highway Safety, 1991. 48 pages.

Mcrae, JJ; Prescott, DM. Regulation and performance in the Canadian trucking industry.  Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada, 1982. 183 pages.

Mozes, S; Walsh, C. “Canada-U.S. free trade agreement: an impetus for north-south and east-west flows”. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1990. Pages 188-204.

This paper provides an integrated and comprehensive picture of commodity traffic trends in Canada over the last ten years.  It examines shifts in domestic cargo carriage activities and looks at recent developments in Canada-U.S. freight movements.  The analysis focuses on the rail and truck modes and is based on data derived from a number of statistical programs.  In order to provide a more cogent perspective on recent developments, different statistical yardsticks are used. 

Paving the way to simplicity: a discussion paper concerning Ontario's commercial vehicle weight laws. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation, 1992. 

The purpose of this report is to give you some insight as to the Vehicle Weight
Review Project's mission, provoke thought as to what you believe are the problems with the current weight laws, as well as suggest how the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario is to solve them.

Pearson, J. Heavy truck weight and dimension regulations for interprovincial operations in Canada resulting from the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Memorandum of Understanding On Interporvincial Weights And Dimensions. Ottawa: Transportation Association Of Canada. Interjurisdictional Committee On Vehicle Weights and Dimensions, 1993.  45 pages.

The Provincial and Territorial governments in Canada have authority over the weight and dimension limits which apply to the highways within their boundaries. This report describes the heavy truck weight and dimension regulations which were agreed to by the provinces in the Memorandum of Understanding on Interprovincial Weights and Dimensions (MOU). The purpose of the MOU is to provide improved uniformity in weight and dimension limits through establishment of minimum and/or maximum thresholds acceptable to all jurisdictions for eight configurations of vehicles commonly used in interprovincial transportation.

Prentice,BE, ER Bruning and D Benell. “The impact of Canada-U.S. trade agreement on the Canadian refrigerated trucking industry”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 485-499.

The purpose of this paper is to attempt to clarify several uncertainties and to allow an objective assessment of the consequences of the Canada-U.S. Trade Agreement (CUSTA) on the refrigerated trucking segment. 

Price Waterhouse. Canadian trucking industry: human resource challenges and opportunities. Ottawa: Canada. Employment and Immigration Canada, 1990. 117 pages.

“Performance and issues in the North American trucking industry”. Proceedings of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Edmonton, Alberta, May 25-28, 1998.  Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1998. 

Papers presented at the session were as follows: Value of goods transported by truck in Ontario (Tardif,R); Technical change in capital and energy conservation in the Canadian trucking industry: an empirical analysis of an experiment (Boucher,M); Key indicators and best practices in the North American trucking industry (Bowland,J and McKnight,D

Special task force on truck owner operators report to the Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators. 1991. 51 pages. OCLC #: 61470612.

The report examines the regulatory environment surrounding the trucking industry in the Spring of 1991. It explores the effects on the industry of the rise of owner-operators and load brokers. 

Tardif, LP. “The trucking industry: an industry in transition”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Canadian Transportation, Banff, Alberta, June 9-12, 1992. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 242-252.

This paper will attempt to cover the new environment surrounding the transport industry, then touch upon the factors or issues the trucking industry is likely to concern itself with over the next three to five years. In closing, this paper will suggest a research agenda in response to the issues faced by the industry in the short, medium and long term. 

Transmode Consultants Inc. The impact of regulatory reform on the Canadian trucking industry. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, 1992. 80 pages.

This publication contains an analysis of the impact of the regulatory reform process on the Canadian trucking industry, focusing on financial and operating indicators.

Transportation trends & issues: 1994 motor carrier survey. Hull: Canada. National Transportation Agency of Canada, 1994. 66 pages.

This report highlights the results of a 1994 survey across Canada, conducted by the National Transportation Agency of Canada.  Issues examined include, among others, basic information regarding the trucking companies, operating licences, size of carriers' fleet, age of fleet, number of employees, transborder operations, third-party logistics, intermodal services participation, and financial data. 

Transportation trends & issues: 1994 motor carrier survey, Prairie provinces. Hull: Canada. National Transportation Agency of Canada, 1994. 63 pages.

This series of reports highlights the results of a 1994 survey across Canada, conducted by the National Transportation Agency of Canada. This volume focuses on results obtained from the Prairie provinces. 

Transportation trends & issues: 1994 motor carrier survey, Maritime provinces. Hull: Canada. National Transportation Agency of Canada, 1994. 62 pages.

This series of reports highlights the results of a 1994 survey across Canada, conducted by the National Transportation Agency of Canada. This volume focuses on results obtained from the Maritime provinces. 

Transportation trends & issues: 1994 motor carrier survey, province of Ontario. Hull: Canada. National Transportation Agency of Canada, 1994. 63 pages.

This series of reports highlights the results of a 1994 survey across Canada, conducted by the National Transportation Agency of Canada. This volume focuses on results obtained from the province of Ontario. 

General References: Operations/Finance

Acton,J, G. O'Neil, D. Peabody, J. Preston-Thomas, A. Stevens and LP Tardif.  Review of truck driver selection, evaluation and training devices. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada. Research and Development Council, 1991. 23 pages.

Arcelus, FJ; Rowcroft, JE. “Determinants of small volume trucking rates”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 380-392.

This paper presents an examination of the relationship between rate, package weight and distance for routes throughout Canada and for weights up to 500lb., the limit on the less-than-truckload (LTL) category in the 'freight of all kinds' schedule. 

Bickel, D., Chow, G., Clement, B., Mills, J., and Wang, J. “The Lower Mainland (Vancouver) Truck Freight Study”. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2003.

Billing, JR, M. Delaquis and FP Nix. “Performance-based truck weight and dimension regulations”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 2. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 893-907.

Boardman, A. E., Gillen, David, Waters II, W. G., and Zhang, Anming. “Challenges to Measuring the External Costs of Transport”. Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2005.

Bowland, JM and RG Friend. “Economic impact of introducing longer trailers in Ontario”. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Victoria, British Columbia, May 15-18, 1994. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1994. Pages 508-518.

This paper assesses the economic impact on Ontario shippers of introducing longer trailers. This paper considers the impact on Ontario shippers of accepting longer trailers in Ontario and forecasts the impact of acceptance in all of eastern Canada. 

Bowland, JM and DB Toms. “Productivity improvements in the trucking industry”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 126-137.

This paper is based on research conducted on behalf of drivesave/trucksave, a branch of the Ministry of Transportation Ontario.  The study objectives were to: i) determine the nature and scope of existing productivity programs in the Ontario trucking industry; ii) examine the potential for further productivity improvements; and iii) identify major barriers that restrict productivity gains. 

Bunting,PM. Highway costs and revenues attributable to intercity trucking: working papers. Kingston: Queen's University. Canadian Institute of Guided Ground Transport, 1983. 84 pages.

Bushman, R; Berthelot, C; Taylor, B. “Commercial Vehicle Loading in an Urban Environment”. 2003 Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada, September 21-24, 2003. St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador: The Transportation Factor. 19 pages.

This paper presents the pilot implementation of a weigh in motion (WIM) and video surveillance system installed in Saskatoon, SK. Specifically this paper presents commercial vehicle loading data collected in an urban environment, quantifies overloading that is occurring, the effects this overloading is having on the roadway infrastructure, and what can be done to reduce the overloading. Using data from a recently installed WIM system with video capture capabilities commercial vehicle traffic types and volumes were quantified with regards to time of day, day of week, percent trucks overloaded, and severity of overloading. The use of the WIM system as a tool for enhancing traffic data collection and commercial vehicle enforcement in an urban environment is examined.

Capelle, RB. “Financial and operating characteristics of ICC-regulated transborder trucking companies”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9 to 12, 1992. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 230-241.

U.S.-Canada transborder trucking is an important and growing market, according to many researchers, anecdotal evidence and trade journal articles on individual carriers and commodity groups. The objective of this paper is to assess the magnitude of importance of the transborder market in the U.S. trucking industry and begin to identify which carriers are involved. 

Chow, G. Economics of the trucking industry in transborder markets, final report: prepared for the Minister of Transport's Task Force on Trucking Issues. Canada: Hickling Corporation, 1991. OCLC #: 41818299.

The specific objectives of this report are the following:  to analyze the economics of the trucking industry in transborder markets to determine the major differences faced by Canadian and U.S. domociled carriers, and to assess the importance of these differences in the competitiveness of Canadian truckers and their options for change.

Clayton, AM and FP Nix. “Owner-operators in Ontario”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 309-323.

In 1988 Ontario conducted one of its periodic road-side surveys, resulting in a large data base on commercial trucks. This paper reports on an effort to use this information to describe owner-operators.

Davies, G. “A productivity study of for-hire intercity trucking: 1978-1988”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 138-151.

This paper's aim is to provide a clear picture of how the industry is currently functioning.  It is hoped that in so doing it will be creating a baseline for future comparisons.

Davies, G. “Owner-operators in intercity for-hire trucking 1978-1988”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 286-300.

This paper examines the behaviour and role of owner-operators in intercity for-hire trucking during the period from 1978, by which time the first oil crisis had subsided, to 1988, the start of the current industry trucking crisis.  Because of data limitations, a picture of the period can only be sketched in broad strokes and using many assumptions. 

Denham, FR. Trucking industry management training needs analysis. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Research Institute, 1993. 51 pages.

This project, commissioned by the Canadian Trucking Research Institute, addresses the management training needs in the industry. Specifically, the objectives were to: identify the skill and knowledge required to manage a trucking fleet; identify gaps in that knowledge and skill; define the needs for training; identify management "wants"; identify and review existing training programs.

Empey,B, J. Farrow and P. Inglis. Ontario moves by truck: the role and contribution of the trucking industry in Ontario. Rexdale: Ontario Trucking Association, 1989. 29 pages.

Fekpe, Edward. “Assessing the Impacts of Freight Transportation on Highway Capacity”. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2003.

Flint, GF. “Environmental influences on freight transportation policy”. Proceedings of the 1991 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 15-19, 1991. Volume 5. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1991. Pages B29-B45.

The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which environmental concerns are influencing North American Governments in public policy decisions regarding goods movement generally, and the specific effect such policies are having on private sector carrier and mode selection. 

Gibson, AW and WG Blevins. “Comparison of emissions and energy use for truck and rail”. Proceedings of the 1991 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 15-19, 1991. Volume 4.  Ottawa: Transportation Association Of Canada, 1991. Pages B29-B42.

This paper presents figures for the types of movement where the two modes do compete, based on locomotive engine tests, typical truck fuel consumptions, and emission regulations. 

Gilbert, R. “Diesel trucking: a growth market for greenhouse gas emissions”. 1999 Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada, September 26-29, 1999, Saint John, New Brunswick. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1999.

This paper was presented at the "Shifting modes to get to Kyoto – freight transportation in the new millennium' session.  This paper sets out and discusses recent and projected use of diesel fuel for freight haulage by road vehicles in Canada, the United States, other OECD countries, and non-OECD countries. 

Gorman, Darren R., Prentice, Barry E., and Shurvell, Scott J. “Economic Impact of For-Hire and Private Trucking in Manitoba: 1998 Results and Methodology”. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2001. Pages 414-429.

In addition to an aggregate measure of the for-hire and private trucking sectors, this study ties the economic impact to a structural profile of the industry.

Gorys, J; G. Little, G. Ripley and LP Tardif. “Border truck movement characteristics Ontario, 1988”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9-12, 1992. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 213-229.

The intent of this paper is to detail the characteristics of border truck movements by other criteria captures by the survey. A similar survey was undertaken in 1983.

Jones, J. “All roads lead to Rome: a comparison of for-hire trucking productivity In Canada and the United States, 1978-1988”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 451-463.

This paper presents some preliminary conclusions and outstanding research issues concerning the productivity performance of the Canadian and U.S. for-hire trucking industries in the period following deregulation in the United States and ending with the first year following the passage of the Motor Vehicle Transportation Act (1988). 

Lynch, Mark. “Estimating the Cost of Delay to Motor Carriers Operating in the Lower Mainland and Fraser Valley”. Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2003.

Mathieson, A. “Owner operators in Canada: who are these guys?” Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Victoria, British Columbia, May 15-18, 1994. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1994. Pages 479-493.

This paper will present, through the use of administrative and survey data, a portrait of Canadian owner operator activity in 1991. Financial data gathered from tax files will be combined with operational characteristics gathered from a telephone survey of truck operations earning between $25,000 and $1 million in annual gross operating revenues.  The methodology employed in this study is presented in the Appendix.

Nix, F. Trucks and energy use: a review of the literature and the data in Canada. Ottawa, Rexdale, Montreal: Canadian Trucking Association, Ontario Trucking Association, Quebec Trucking Association, 1991. 39 pages.

Much of the literature comparing rail and trucking energy efficiency measures  transportation output as a "tonne-kilometre" (or "ton-mile). The problem is that the movement of mass (tonnes) over distance (kilometres) is only one of the things a transportation service provides. There are ways of comparing trucks and rail that avoid using tonne-kilometres as a measure of output. This paper examines three.

Nix, FP. Impact of introducing long trucks to Ontario. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Research Institute, 1995. 9 pages.

This report describes an estimate of the likely impact of introducing long truck combinations, under permit, to Ontario. 

Nix, FP. Impact of longer combination vehicles on energy use & emissions. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Research Institute, 1995. 18 pages.

This report examines the impact on energy use and emissions if long combination trucks are allowed to operate. It uses fuel-economy competition data from Manitoba to estimate equations which predict fuel use for both single-trailer and multiple-trailer configurations.

Nix, FP. Long Truck Activity in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Research Institute, 1995. 75 pages.

Long trucks are truck tractors with two or three trailers where either the number of trailers or the combined configuration length exceeds normal limits.  Because of the number of trailers or the extra length, long trucks operate by permit in 27 North American jurisdictions. This report examines the regulations allowing their use and describes their early development. The purpose is to document the extent and nature of long truck operations in five Canadian jurisdictions.

Ontario Ministry of Transportation. Truck Transportation Office. Ontario for-hire trucking: a six year perspective 1980 to 1985. Downsview: Ontario Ministry of Transportation, 1988. 27 pages.

This report presents a statistical summary of the for-hire trucking industry in the province of Ontario over a five year span. The data was collected in a Statistics Canada survey of trucking companies which have a gross annual revenue of $100,000 or more. 

Ownership patterns and foreign influence in the Canadian trucking industry. Transport Canada. Strategic Planning Group. Transports Canada. Groupe de Planification Strategique.

Park, James A. “Changing the Face of Trucking”. Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2002. Pages 149-163.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore ways the trucking industry can change the way it does business in order to attract the drivers it will need in the near future. The author asserts that trucking will have to become more flexible in meeting the needs of the next generation of driver, rather than trying to find an individual to fit the job.

The financial performance of Canadian trucking firms. Vancouver, BC: Price Waterhouse, 1991. 51 pages.

The purpose of this study is to analyze the performance of Canadian trucking firms in Canada-U.S. transborder markets. This study is part of a set of research projects commissioned by Transport Canada and the Minister's task force reviewing the competitiveness of Canadian trucking firms in transborder markets and comparing it to the performance of the U.S. trucking sector.

Siwak, K; B. Raney, L. Rhone and L. Tharratt, L. “Business skills requirements for competitive owner-operators”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9 to 12, 1992. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 92-106.

To better understand the business skills needed by the owner-operator trucking sector in Ontario, the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (M.T.O.) conducted a province-wide survey of owner-operators. This paper presents the results of the survey. 

Transportation energy consumption rate data. Victoria: British Columbia, Ministry of Transportation and Highways, 1995.

This study provides transportation energy consumption rates for a variety of vehicle classes. 

Tardiff, L. “Human resources in the trucking industry”. Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 301-308.

Toms, DB. “Highway user charges: are truckers paying their way?” Proceedings of the 26th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1991. Pages 111-125.

This paper examines current highway costs and user charges for primary and secondary highways in the province of Ontario. Three traffic levels are considered for each road class.  Cost recovery ratios are calculated for common truck configurations considering both incremental and total costs. 

Toms, DB. “Success strategies for truckload carriers”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9-12, 1992.  Saskatoon: University Of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 66-79.

This paper examines strategic issues faced by truckload motor carriers. It concentrates on three areas: trends affecting the structure of the industry; implications for specific industry segments; and identification of strategies that are likely to be effective. 

Owner operator costs and earnings comparison in Canada/U.S. transborder trucking: final study report. Ottawa: Minister of Transport. Task Force on Trucking Issues, 1991. 21 pages.

Comparison of Canadian and U.S. trucking costs in transborder markets: final study report. Minister of Transport. Task Force on Trucking Issues, 1991. 29 pages.

This report documents findings from Trimac Consulting Services' recent investigations of transborder operating cost differences between firms domiciled in each of the two countries.

Owner operator costs and earnings comparison in Canada/U.S. transborder trucking: final study report, technical appendix: owner-operator cases. Minister of Transport. Task Force on Trucking Issues, 1991.

Vespa, S. and RF Webb. “Trends in heavy-duty vehicles and their fuels”. Proceedings of the 1991 Annual Conference of the Transportation Association of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 15-19, 1991. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1991. 14 pages.

Wei, VH. Rate structure of Canadian for hire trucking: effects of economic regulation.  Ottawa: Canadian Transport Commission, Research Branch, Carrier Economics Division, 1983. 107 pages. ISBN #: 066212667X.

Woudsma, Clarence. “Trucking in Canadian Cities: Planning for the Future”. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2001. Pages 597-613.

The movement of goods or freight is an essential component of any urban area and the majority of that movement is truck related. This paper addresses two key aspects of the goods movement question:  1) what is our current level of understanding related to urban goods movement and how does it vary; 2) what are the implications of this understanding with respect to the issue of global climate change. This paper also addresses the Canadian response to the Kyoto protocol and the nature of that response with respect to the goods movement sector.

General References: Trucks (including taxation and pavement performance)

Agarwal, AC. Vehicle weight regulations across Canada: a technical review with respect to the capacity of highway systems. Downsview: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Research and Development Division, 1978. 11 pages.

This report was originally published for presentation to the RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Committee, Spring Session, Toronto, March 1978.

Agarwal, A and BR Davis. Bridge evaluation for vehicle weight regulations across Canada. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Research and Development Division, 1980.

Berthiaume, C. A study of active suspensions for heavy vehicles.  Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1987. 82 pages.

Billing, J; A. Clayton and F. Nix. “Truck weight and dimension regulations and containers”. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Conference of the Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland, September 23-27, 1990. Volume 4.  Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, 1990. Pages C29-C53.

This paper investigates the relationship between containers and truck size and weight regulations in Canada. 

Billing, JR and ME Wolkowicz. Stability of truck combinations. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1984.

Christison, JT. Evaluation of the effects of axle loads on pavement from in situ strain and deflection measurements. Edmonton: Alberta Research Council. Transportation and Surface Water Engineering Division, 1978. 85 pages.

Clayton, A. Heavy vehicle fuel consumption in Canada. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, Energy Planning Directorate, 1984.

Clayton, AM; A. Lansdown, R. Thom and J Wyatt. “Truck weight distributions as a function of weight limits: western Canada experience: developments in short and medium span bridge engineering '90”. Papers presented at the third international conference on short and medium span bridges held in Toronto, Ontario, August 7-10, 1990. Volume 1.  Montreal: Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 1990. Pages 569-578.

This paper presents models for predicting distributions of the gross vehicle weight (GVW) of some of the most common truck types operating on Western Canadian highways. 

Csagoly, PF and RA Dorton. Truck weights and bridge design loads in Canada. Ontario:  Ministry of Transportation and Communications, 1978.

Dunn, TR. Study of the effect of road roughness on truck tire rolling resistance. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate, 1988. 72 pages.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the truck tire rolling resistance (ttrr) machine for monitoring road roughness.

Expert systems and heavy trucks: feasibility study. Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Council on Highway and Transportation Research and Development, 1988.

The fuel-saving potential of road speed governors on commercial trucks. Winnipeg: Canada. Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1985.

Hutchinson, BG. The impact of large trucks in urban areas. Waterloo: University of Waterloo, 1987. 55 pages.

Hutchinson, B; and P. Meyer. “Intermodal truck-rail weight and dimension compatibility requirements”. Waterloo: University of Waterloo Transport Group, 1987. 26 pages.

This report examines the truck-rail weight and dimension compatibility requirements for the intermodal services offered by the railway companies of Canada, which consist of both trailer-on-flat-car (tofc) and container-on-flat-car (cofc). 

Hutchinson, BG and DJ Parker. Large truck braking at signalized intersections. Downsview: Ontario. Ministry of Transportation, 1988. 71 pages.

Simplified braking models were used to analyze the braking distances, braking efficiencies and traffic signal clearance times for a range of truck types operating at a variety of speeds under different loading conditions on pavements with various skid resistances. 

LeBlanc, PA and JHF Woodrooffe. Heavy vehicle suspension variations affecting road life. Ottawa: Canada. National Research Council of Canada, 1987. 25 pages.

Liba, CJ. “Comparative taxes and trucking competition”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9-12, 1992. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 80-91.

Macdonald, R and W. Mercer. Axle load distribution characteristics of a triple-axle truck suspension system. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1985.

Overlength truck combinations report: a traffic operation and performance evaluation of overlength truck combinations. Edmonton: Alberta. Department of Transportation and Utilities, Transportation Safety Branch, 1985. 40 pages.

Snelgrove, FB. The fuel economy, stability and pavement effects of the wide base radial tire. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Research and Development Branch, 1980. 68 pages.



General References: Trucks (Canadian Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study)

Agarwal, AC. Vehicle weight regulations across Canada: a technical review with respect to the capacity of highway systems. Downsview: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Research and Development Division, 1978. 11 pages.

This report was originally published for presentation to the RTAC Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Committee, Spring Session, Toronto, March 1978.

Agarwal, A and BR Davis. Bridge evaluation for vehicle weight regulations across Canada. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Research and Development Division, 1980.

Berthiaume, C. A study of active suspensions for heavy vehicles.  Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1987. 82 pages.

Billing, J; A. Clayton and F. Nix. “Truck weight and dimension regulations and containers”. Proceedings of the 1990 Annual Conference of the Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, St. John's, Newfoundland, September 23-27, 1990. Volume 4.  Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, 1990. Pages C29-C53.

This paper investigates the relationship between containers and truck size and weight regulations in Canada. 

Billing, JR and ME Wolkowicz. Stability of truck combinations. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1984.

Christison, JT. Evaluation of the effects of axle loads on pavement from in situ strain and deflection measurements. Edmonton: Alberta Research Council. Transportation and Surface Water Engineering Division, 1978. 85 pages.

Clayton, A. Heavy vehicle fuel consumption in Canada. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, Energy Planning Directorate, 1984.

Clayton, AM; A. Lansdown, R. Thom and J Wyatt. “Truck weight distributions as a function of weight limits: western Canada experience: developments in short and medium span bridge engineering '90”. Papers presented at the third international conference on short and medium span bridges held in Toronto, Ontario, August 7-10, 1990. Volume 1.  Montreal: Canadian Society for Civil Engineering, 1990. Pages 569-578.

This paper presents models for predicting distributions of the gross vehicle weight (GVW) of some of the most common truck types operating on Western Canadian highways. 

Csagoly, PF and RA Dorton. Truck weights and bridge design loads in Canada. Ontario:  Ministry of Transportation and Communications, 1978.

Dunn, TR. Study of the effect of road roughness on truck tire rolling resistance. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate, 1988. 72 pages.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using the truck tire rolling resistance (ttrr) machine for monitoring road roughness.

Expert systems and heavy trucks: feasibility study. Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, Council on Highway and Transportation Research and Development, 1988.

The fuel-saving potential of road speed governors on commercial trucks. Winnipeg: Canada. Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1985.

Hutchinson, BG. The impact of large trucks in urban areas. Waterloo: University of Waterloo, 1987. 55 pages.

Hutchinson, B; and P. Meyer. “Intermodal truck-rail weight and dimension compatibility requirements”. Waterloo: University of Waterloo Transport Group, 1987. 26 pages.

This report examines the truck-rail weight and dimension compatibility requirements for the intermodal services offered by the railway companies of Canada, which consist of both trailer-on-flat-car (tofc) and container-on-flat-car (cofc). 

Hutchinson, BG and DJ Parker. Large truck braking at signalized intersections. Downsview: Ontario. Ministry of Transportation, 1988. 71 pages.

Simplified braking models were used to analyze the braking distances, braking efficiencies and traffic signal clearance times for a range of truck types operating at a variety of speeds under different loading conditions on pavements with various skid resistances. 

LeBlanc, PA and JHF Woodrooffe. Heavy vehicle suspension variations affecting road life. Ottawa: Canada. National Research Council of Canada, 1987. 25 pages.

Liba, CJ. “Comparative taxes and trucking competition”. Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Banff, Alberta, June 9-12, 1992. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1992. Pages 80-91.

Macdonald, R and W. Mercer. Axle load distribution characteristics of a triple-axle truck suspension system. Ontario: Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1985.

Overlength truck combinations report: a traffic operation and performance evaluation of overlength truck combinations. Edmonton: Alberta. Department of Transportation and Utilities, Transportation Safety Branch, 1985. 40 pages.

Snelgrove, FB. The fuel economy, stability and pavement effects of the wide base radial tire. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Research and Development Branch, 1980. 68 pages.



General References: Trucks (Canadian Heavy Vehicle Weights and Dimensions Study)- Other Related Reports

Billing, JR. Discussion paper for CCMTA/RTAC vehicle weights and dimensions study implementation committee. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications. Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1986. 12 pages.

Billing, JR. “Factors that may affect future truck configurations for North America”. Proceedings, International Road Federation Conference and Exposition, cosponsored by the Transportation Association of Canada, Calgary, Alberta, July 3-7, 1994. Volume 5. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1994. Pages C59-C70.

This paper briefly traces the principal changes that have affected truck configuration in North America since the advent of the modern truck and the modern highway in the 1950's and 1960's. It attempts to identify factors, such as free trade and changes in freight flows, U.S. and Mexican regulatory changes, vehicle technology and others, which may determine truck configurations and trucking productivity for the future, and discusses possible outcomes from some combinations of these factors. 

Bisson, BG, AM Clayton ,FP Nix and GA Sparks. Study of vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: case histories. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1986. 183 pages.

Over forty case studies are presented to demonstrate the controlling influence of the various provincial vehicle weight and dimension regulations on the composition of truck fleets in Canada. 

Bisson, BG, AM Clayton and FP Nix. Vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: the regulations. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1987. 93 pages.

A comparative analysis of the regulations controlling the size and weight of trucks in each Canadian province and territory is presented.

Clayton, A. and E. Fekpe. “Model for trucking productivity analysis of alternative weight limits”. Proceedings, International Road Federation Conference and Exposition, cosponsored by the Transportation Association of Canada, Calgary, Alberta, July 3-7, 1994. Volume 5. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1994. Pages C15-C36.

Vehicle weight and dimension (VWD) regulations are intended to balance the economic benefits of efficient freight transportation against the costs that large trucks can impose on transport infrastructure. This paper presents models to predict the equivalent pavement loads (a measure of the "cost") per unit payload (a measure of the "benefit") as a function of the gross vehicle weight limit and the intensity of enforcement for the common heavy truck types. 

Dynamic weigh in motion scales. Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada. Project Committee on Dynamic Weigh-in Motion Scales, 1981.

Nix, FP. Study of vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: background paper #2; previous research. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1985. 35 pages.

Nix, FP. Study of vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: background paper no. 4: analysis of registration and road-side survey data.  Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1986. 99 pages.

Nix, FP. Vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: final report. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1987. 97 pages.

This study attempts to put together an understanding of how the twelve sets of weight and dimension regulations in Canada work, where the major differences are, and what the implications are. The report describes the impact of the regulations in terms of how they affect the design of truck combinations, how the vehicles that result affect trucking costs and rates, how the different regulations have affected the characteristics of truck fleets in various parts of the country, and how individual operators make decisions in terms of their own operations. 

Nix, FP. Impact of RTAC regulations on trucking in Canada. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, Research And Development Directorate, 1988. 35 pages.

This report provides an estimate of the expected impact of the uniform Canadian truck size and weight regulations which resulted from the RTAC heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study.  The impact analysis has taken into account configuration choice, freight density, major region to region and intraregion traffic. Resulting payload handling characteristics, trucking costs and rates have been projected, based on specific assumptions about other factors.

International symposium on heavy vehicle weights and dimensions, June 8-13, 1986, Kelowna, British Columbia. Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, 1989. 456 pages.

Second international symposium on heavy vehicle weights and dimensions, June 18-22, 1989, Kelowna, British Columbia: program and abstracts. Ottawa: Roads and Transportation Association of Canada, 1989.

Suleiman, N. and A. Varma. “NAFTA and truck configurations: a framework for assessments”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 2.  Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 647-661.

This paper focuses on the issue of harmonization of truck size and weight and configurations. The paper discusses the issues involved in developing a framework for identifying and assessing the configuration that would be most appropriate in the post-NAFTA environment. The framework should include consideration of trade, economy, carriers' and shippers' costs and productivity, transportation agency costs, safety, pavement damage, bridge impacts, cost recovery, intermodal shifts and arrangement, and other concerns. Such a framework could be used to identify the conflicting concerns and the tradeoffs that may exist. 

Sparks, GA. A study of vehicle weight and dimension regulations and Canada's trucking industry: background paper # 5: productivity/operational implications of vehicle weight and dimension regulations. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1986. 140 pages.

Leblanc, PA and JHF Woodrooffe. Suspensions and vehicle stability as determined by the Canadian heavy vehicle weights and dimensions study. Ottawa: Canada. National Research Council of Canada, 1987. 13 pages.

This report summarizes suspension parameters, stability measures, and the effect of parameter variations on static rollover threshold.  In descending order of influence, these factors include: 1) centre of gravity height, 2) trailer axle width, 3) tractor suspension type, 4) trailer suspension type, 5) fifth wheel vertical slack, and 6) tire choice

General References: Safety

Canadians' attitudes toward trucking safety on highways: final report. Ottawa: Canadians for Responsible and Safe Highways, 1998. 67 pages.

This report highlights the results of a National Angus Reid Poll conducted for Canadians for Responsible and Safe Highways (CRASH) to determine Canadians' attitudes toward trucking safety on highways. 

Baldwin, G. Too Many Trucks on the Road? Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2005. 8 pages.

This study tests the perception that road congestion is growing in Canada, especially with the competition for road space between cars and trucks. It provides a view of the characteristics of the truck and car population on the roads in Canada based primarily on the registration and performance data available from the Canadian Vehicle Survey.

Barton, Ray. Incentive programs for enhancing truck safety and productivity: a Canadian perspective. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1998. 52 pages.

Barton, Ray. How to implement incentive programs for safety and productivity guidelines for transport fleets: pilot testing version. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1999. 44 pages.

A 1998 Canada Safety Council study (funded by TDC) identified a need for information to help fleets ensure the success of their incentive programs. This manual was subsequently developed as a practical guide to help trucking companies develop, administer, and evaluate incentive programs. 

Billing, JR, W. Cann and WRJ Mercer. A proposal for research to provide technical basis for a revised national standard on load security for heavy trucks. Downsview: Ontario. Ministry of Transportation, Transportation Technology and Energy Branch, 1993. 133 pages.

Ongoing work to draft a National Safety Code Standard for load security for heavy trucks has identified a need for research into the mechanics of load security systems. Extensive consultations found specific needs related to the fundamentals of anchor points for tiedowns, blocking and friction and related to the specific characteristics of commodities like dressed lumber, metal coils, and a range of others. This report identifies the load security issues needing research, and describes a program of work to address them, based almost entirely on testing of loads. The results of the tests will be presented in plain language as principles that could be used as a basis for development of the load security standard.

Brown,WJ. “Interaction between extended duty hours and circadian rhythms: consequent effects on long haul driver alertness and performance”. Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, British Columbia, May 15-18, 1994. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1994. Pages 532-547.

A major Canadian rail disaster in 1986 resulted in the loss of 26 lives and $30 million in property damage. The investigation demonstrated that severe disruptions to the engineer's circadian rhythms caused by erratic schedules and extended duty hours impaired engineer performance resulting in the rail disaster. This finding is supported by GAO studies (1992; 1993) on rail safety which showed similar results. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether the work/rest patterns of long haul truck drivers are similar to those of train engineers and the consequences for safety in the trucking industry. 

National safety code for motor carriers. Ottawa: Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators, 1988.

Chaumel, Jean-Louis. Road accidents involving long-distance heavy trucks: the case of eastern Quebec. Rimouski: Centre d'intervention et de recherche pour l'amelioration des situations de travail de l'Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 1986. 75 pages.

The objective of this study was to identify the principal causes of accidents involving heavy trucks and the road safety risks for these vehicles in the eastern Quebec region.  The main research involved bibliographic study, analysis of available accident statistics and observations taken on board trucks during actual driving conditions.

Comeau,JL and B. Hendrick. “Transport Canada heavy freight vehicle study”. Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference IX, Montreal, Quebec, May 28-31, 1995. Montreal: Universite de Montreal. Laboratoire sur la securite des transports. Centre de recherche sur les transports, 1995. Pages 407-16.

In March of 1991 Transport Canada's collision investigation branch launched a six month field study of heavy freight vehicle collisions in eastern Ontario. Sixteen heavy freight vehicle collisions were investigated. This paper focuses solely on the performance and the safety issues related to the tractor trailer units. Particular emphasis is given to the cases which led to the proposal for a new Canadian motor vehicle safety standard, CMVSS 905 trailer load security and its relation to truck stability. 

Commercial vehicle safety in Canada: report to parliament for the year 1989 = Sécurité des véhicules commerciaux au Canada: rapport présenté au parlement pour l'année 1989.  Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Policy and Coordination Group. Motor Carrier Branch = Canada. Transports Canada. Groupe des politiques et de la coordination. Direction des transports routiers, 1989. 29 pages.

The federal Minister of Transport's annual report to the Canadian Parliament on the progress of the implementation of the National Safety Code concerning truck and bus safety operations, and on statistical information respecting trends in highway accidents involving truck and bus operations.

Commercial vehicle safety in Canada: report to parliament for the year 1990 Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Motor Carrier Policy and Programs, 1990. 21 pages.

The federal Minister of Transport's annual report to the Canadian Parliament on the progress of the implementation of the National Safety Code concerning truck and bus safety operations, and on statistical information respecting trends in highway accidents involving truck and bus operations.

Commercial vehicle safety in Canada: fifth annual report to Parliament. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada. Road Safety Directorate. Safety And Security, 1997. 65 pages.

The federal Minister of Transport's annual report to the Canadian Parliament on the progress of the implementation of the National Safety Code concerning commercial vehicle safety operations, and on statistical information respecting trends in highway accidents involving truck and bus operations.

Delaquis, M and FP Nix. “Controlling highway safety - commercial driver qualifications”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 2.  Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 792-807.

“Heavy trucks and transportation of dangerous goods”. Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference VIII: June 14-16, 1993, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan: Proceedings. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan, 1993.  

Papers presented at the session were as follows: Accident and exposure rates  for New Brunswick-domociled motor carriers (Rajani,P and Wilson,FR);  Side impacts into tractor-trailers at night : visibility and driver training issues (Mortimer,R);  Road vehicle dynamics of tandem - axle road trucks (Esmialzadeh,E, Behravesh,AH, Mobasher,A and Taghirad,HR);  On road truck inspection program in Saskatchewan based on the CVSA standards (Popoff,AJ and Meed,J). 

“Proceedings of the fatigue in transportation workshop: multimodal issues and solutions, Ottawa, Ontario, October 15 & 16, 1998”.  Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1999. 263 pages.

This report contains the presentations given at the Fatigue in Transportation Workshop held in Ottawa, 15-16 October 1998. The workshop was organized by the Transportation Development Centre and co-sponsored by the Road Safety Directorate of Transport Canada, the Canada Safety Council, and the Railway Association of Canada. The presentations cover a broad range of issues related to fatigue in all transportation modes.  Summaries are provided in both official languages. 

Kosior, J. M. and Summerfield, Shannon. “Role of Inclement Weather in Heavy Truck Accident Causation: Implications for Driver Training, LCV’s and Safety Programs”. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2001. Pages 896-912.

Inclement weather is a natural consequence of living in Canada. The role of hostile environmental conditions in heavy truck accident causation appears to be under appreciated.

Little, G. “Truck safety perception and reality”. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, Winnipeg, Manitoba, May 26-29, 1996. Volume 2. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan Printing Services, 1996. Pages 762-775.

This paper will examine the public perception of the safety of large trucks, how this perception matches reality, and what steps might be taken to address those perceptions in the context of a truck safety program. 

Mackie,RR, JC Miller, MM Mitler, T Shultz and CD Wylie. Commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue and alertness study: technical summary. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1996. 59 pages.

This is the Technical Summary of the research report Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue and Alertness Study by Wylie et al., dated October 1996, concerning the largest and most comprehensive over-the-road study on this subject ever conducted in North America. The data collection involved eighty drivers in the U.S. and Canada who were monitored over a period of sixteen weeks. 

Mackie,RR, JC Miller, MM Mitler; T Shultz and CD Wylie. Commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue and alertness study. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1996. 

This is the full final report on the largest and most comprehensive over-the-road study of commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue ever conducted in North America. The data collection involved eighty drivers in the U.S. and Canada who were monitored over a period of sixteen weeks.  

Montafur, J., McGregor, R. “Opportunities for the Application of Intelligent Transportation Systems to Commercial Vehicle Operations (ITS-CVO) in the Prairie Region for Truck Safety Improvement”. 2003 Annual Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada, September 21-24, 2003, St. John’s Newfoundland and Labrador: The Transportation Factor; 17 pages.

This paper investigates the potential for the application of ITS to commercial vehicle operations in the Prairie region for improved truck safety. More specifically, the paper: (1) describes the trucking activity in the region; (2) presents the results of previous research about truck accidents on provincial highways in the prairies, including urban and rural areas; (3) discusses the Canadian ITS architecture, particularly its commercial vehicle operation component; and (4) identifies potential ways to improve truck safety by applying ITS to CVO in the region.

The national safety code for commercial trucks and buses. Ottawa: Canada. Transport Canada, 1988. 16 pages.

Nix, Fred P.; “Truck Safety and Safety Regulations”. Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Canadian Transportation Research Forum, 2001. Volume 1. Pages 396-411.

This paper examines differences in truck collision rates among provinces and territories and between Canada and the United States.  Collision rates are one objective measure of highway safety. They indicate how one jurisdiction is performing compared to another or how one jurisdiction is performing over time.  What they do not reveal, however, is why one jurisdiction has more or fewer collisions than another.  Many factors are involved and it has not been possible to develop highway safety models sufficiently robust to explain these differences.  One factor that (presumably) explains highway safety is the large number of truck safety regulations. This is the interest of this paper.

Preston-Thomas,J and J Woodrooffe. “A feasibility study of a rollover warning device for heavy trucks”. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada. Transportation Development Centre, 1990. 34 pages.

This report assesses the technical feasibility of a device that would warn the operators of heavy trucks of incipient rollover. 

“Report card on big truck safety by province”. Ottawa: Canadians for Responsible and Safe Highways, 1999. 16 pages.

The purpose of this report card is to encourage provinces to upgrade, rather than downgrade, safety regulations and enforcement. On average, each year in Canada there are about 43,000 collisions involving big trucks that kill or injure 12,000 people.  Truck safety is particularly important because these big vehicles share public roads and streets with more vulnerable road users – pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, bus riders and motorists. This report card rates each of Canada's provinces and territories in terms of trucking safety performance and results.

Sanderson, RW.  “The need for cost-effective guidelines to enhance truck safety: Cost effectiveness through innovation”. Proceedings of the 1996 TAC Annual Conference, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, October 6-9, 1996. Ottawa: Transportation Association of Canada, 1996.

This paper was presented at the 'Cost-Effective Designs for Trucks' session. This paper will discuss the findings of the study "The Effect of Vehicle Length on Traffic on Canadian Two-Lane, Two-Way Roads, carried out for the Transportation Association of Canada (TAC), along with other research completed since the time of the report, identifying the critical issues relating to truck dimensions and performance effects on traffic operation and geometric design.

Smiley, Alison; Boivin, Diane; Heslegrave, Ron; Davis, Diane. “Investigation of commercial motor vehicle driver cumulative fatigue recovery periods: Literature review”. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 2003. 59 pages.

Governments and the trucking industry would like to provide an optimal regulatory and operating framework within which Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) driver fatigue can be better managed to reduce its contribution to collisions. There is insufficient scientific information concerning the length of time required for drivers to recover from various types of work schedules, particularly night schedules. The goal of Phase I, Investigation of Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Cumulative Fatigue Recovery Periods: Literature Review is two-fold, first to review literature related to recovery and second, to develop experimental protocols to examine driver recovery needs. These protocols will be further developed in Phase II of this project, once information has been collected on typical CMV driver schedules through a questionnaire survey.

“Straight talk on fatigue and alertness”. Ottawa: Canadian Trucking Association, 1996. 25 pages.

This booklet is intended to provide drivers, safety personnel and trucking company managers with: a basic overview of fatigue; its causes and effects; some of the research findings to date; and tools and tips to help drivers maintain their alertness. Driver fatigue is a complex issue, and the purpose of this publication is to serve as an introduction.

Transport Canada. “Dangerous Goods Directorate”. Carriers. Ottawa: The Directorate, 1986.

Truck safety: perceptions and reality. Waterloo: University Of Waterloo. The Institute for Risk Research, 1996. 427 pages.

The Conference on Truck Safety: Perceptions and Reality was convened to identify the key issues affecting truck safety and to lay the basis for a workable plan of action that reflects the views and interest of the various stakeholders, including carriers, shippers, inspectors, law enforcement officials, insurers, regulators, manufacturers, researchers and the public. 

“Trucks”. Proceedings of the Canadian Multidisciplinary Road Safety Conference VII, Vancouver, British Columbia, June 17-19, 1991. Vancouver: UBC Accident Research Team, Department Of Civil Engineering, 1991. Pages 300-362.

Papers presented at this session include the following: Truck performance standards and relationships between truck and highway characteristics (Billing,JR); Brake overheating versus out-of-adjustment conditions in large truck downhill accident reconstruction (Hull,WC and Newton,BE); Reliability analysis of truck braking (Navin,FPD); Micro-level analysis of large truck manoeuvres and causes (Saccomanno,FF and Read,SW); Evaluation of antilock brake system technology for B-train double tanker vehicles (Vespa,S, Jacques,D, Billing,JR and Wolkowicz,M); Directional performance of a log
hauling truck (Zadeh,EE and Tabarrok,B).

Wilde, G. “Improving trucking safety and profitability through safety incentive schemes”. Montreal: Canada. Transport Canada, Transportation Development Centre, 1995. 42 pages.

The current state of knowledge concerning the effects of incentives for safety in industrial settings and in road traffic is applied to the specific purpose of enhancing the safety of long-haul trucking in Canada. Mobility and accident statistics pertaining to recent years in the U.S. and Canada are reviewed. 


General References: Web Sites

Alberta Motor Transport Association. Information available at: http://www.amta.ca 

Association du camionage du Québec. Information available at: http://www.carrefour-acq.org 

British Columbia Trucking Association. Information available at: http://www.bctrucking.com/

Canadian Association of Supply Chain & Logistics Management. Information available at: http://www.sclcanada.org/ 

Canadian Council of Motor Transport Administrators/ Conseil canadien des administrateurs en transport motorisé. Information available at: http://www.ccmta.ca 

Canadian International Freight Forwarders Association. Information available at: http://www.ciffa.com 

Canadian Trucking Alliance. Information available at: http://www.cantruck.com/ 

Canadian Trucking Human Resource Council. Information available at: http://www.cthrc.com 

Canadian Transportation Equipment Association. Information available at: http://www.ctea.on.ca 

Freight Carrier Association of Canada. Information available at: http://www.fca-natc.org 

The Manitoba Trucking Association. Information available at: http://www.trucking.mb.ca 

Ontario Trucking Association. Information available at: http://www.ontruck.org 

The Private Motor Truck Council. Information available at: http://www.pmtc.ca 

Saskatchewan Trucking Association. Information available at: http://www.sasktrucking.com 

Transportation Association of Canada. Information available at: http://www.tac-atc.ca